The IRS referenced Discover 2014-21 treating digital foreign money as property for federal earnings tax functions and thus topic to basic tax ideas relevant to property transactions. Citing Rev. Rul. 2019-24, the IRS famous that digital currencies reminiscent of Bitcoin, Ether, and Litecoin are cryptocurrencies as a result of they rely on cryptography to safe transactions which can be digitally recorded on a distributed ledger. The IRS highlighted the traits and performance of every cryptocurrency, specializing in (a) total design, (b) meant use, and (c) precise use in analyzing every Described Change.
Notably, along with cryptocurrencies getting used as a technique of cost, the IRS acknowledged that taxpayers make investments in a wide range of cryptocurrencies and a few cryptocurrencies could also be exchanged for fiat currencies, whereas others might solely be exchanged for sure varieties of cryptocurrencies.
Whereas taxpayers can’t depend on the memorandum, it’s nonetheless useful for events who take the place that their publicity to cryptocurrencies is unrelated to any commerce or enterprise and solely pertains to funding actions.
In resolving the query as as to whether Part 1031 of the Code applies to every Described Change occurring previous to January 1, 2018, the IRS defined that Part 1031(a)(1), which offers that “[n]o achieve or loss shall be acknowledged on the trade of property held for productive use in a commerce or enterprise or for funding if such property is exchanged solely for property of like-kind which is to be held both for productive use in a commerce or enterprise or for funding,” applies solely to a transaction the place the taxpayer’s financial scenario is actually the identical because the taxpayer’s financial scenario previous to the transaction. Treas. Reg. § 1.1031(a)-1(b) defines “like type” for functions of Part 1031(a) of the Code as “the character or character of the property and never the grade or high quality. One type or class of property might not, beneath that part, be exchanged for property of a special type or class.” The IRS cited Rev. Rul. 82-166 the place the trade of gold bullion for silver bullion resulted in achieve recognition partly as a result of the latter was used primarily as a commodity and the previous was used primarily as an funding. The IRS additionally cited Rev. Rul. 79-143 the place the trade of gold cash for gold cash was thought of taxable as a result of one kind of gold coin was valued for its collectability and the opposite was valued for its steel content material. Whereas taxpayers can’t depend on the memorandum, it’s useful that the IRS has used these rulings on commodities to help it within the interpretation of Part 1031 of the Code, notably for taxpayers counting on current commodity determinations in respect of different provisions of the Code.
The IRS in contrast Bitcoin and Ether to Litecoin, concluding that Bitcoin and Ether had a essentially totally different position within the broader cryptocurrency market from 2016 to 2017, highlighting that “Bitcoin and Ether acted as an on and off-ramp for investments and transactions in different cryptocurrencies” as a result of with a view to spend money on cryptocurrency or liquidate an funding, an investor would have wanted to accumulate both bitcoin or ether first. In distinction, the IRS famous that litecoin was considerably extra restricted when it got here to buying and selling. On account of that distinction, the IRS concluded that neither the trade of bitcoin for litecoin or ether for litecoin certified for like-kind trade remedy as a result of differing nature and character of the cryptocurrencies concerned. Taxpayers ought to observe that given the assorted makes use of or features that cryptocurrencies can serve, aside from a potential funding, a essential evaluation of all the final word details and circumstances is important. The usage of a cryptocurrency, for instance, to carry out a service-like operate may very well be seen as a commerce or enterprise that’s past mere funding.
In respect of the trade of bitcoin for ether, although the IRS acknowledged that each had the same position within the cryptocurrency market and had comparable qualities and makes use of, the IRS famous that Bitcoin “is designed to behave as a cost community for which Bitcoin acts because the unit of cost” whereas Ether was meant to behave not solely as a cost community however “as a platform for working sensible contracts and different purposes.” Thus, the totally different functionalities of bitcoin and ether led the IRS to conclude that the trade of 1 for the opposite wouldn’t qualify as like-kind property beneath Part 1031 of the Code.
The memorandum addressed solely exchanges of bitcoin for ether, bitcoin for litecoin, and ether for litecoin.